Hypertonic infusions are intravenous fluids with a higher concentration of solutes compared to the body’s normal physiological fluids. They are used in specific medical situations to manage various conditions. Here are ten examples of hypertonic infusions:
- 3% Sodium Chloride (NaCl): This solution contains a higher concentration of sodium chloride than the body’s normal saline solution (0.9% NaCl). It is used in certain cases of severe hyponatremia (low blood sodium levels) or cerebral edema.
- 10% Dextrose: Dextrose is a sugar solution that can be used as a hypertonic infusion to provide calories and energy in situations such as malnutrition or hypoglycemia (low blood sugar).
- 5% Mannitol: Mannitol is a sugar alcohol that acts as an osmotic diuretic and pulls fluid out of tissues and into the bloodstream. It is used to reduce cerebral edema, intraocular pressure, or to increase urine output in conditions like acute kidney injury.
- 3% Sodium Bicarbonate: This solution contains a higher concentration of sodium bicarbonate and is used to correct severe acidosis (low blood pH) or to manage certain electrolyte imbalances.
- 23.4% Sodium Chloride: This hypertonic saline solution contains a significantly higher concentration of sodium chloride and is used in critical situations like severe hyponatremia, hypovolemic shock, or to raise blood pressure.
- 20% Albumin: Albumin is a protein solution that can be used as a hypertonic infusion to expand blood volume in situations such as hypovolemia or hypoproteinemia.
- 7.5% Sodium Chloride: This hypertonic saline solution is used in specific cases like acute symptomatic hyponatremia or to raise serum sodium levels cautiously.
- 25% Dextrose: This hypertonic dextrose solution is used in specific situations to correct severe hypoglycemia or as a source of calories in parenteral nutrition.
- 8.4% Sodium Bicarbonate: This hypertonic solution of sodium bicarbonate is used in specific cases to manage severe metabolic acidosis or in certain drug overdoses.
- 10% Calcium Chloride: Calcium chloride solution is hypertonic and is used in critical situations such as hypocalcemia (low blood calcium levels), hyperkalemia (high blood potassium levels), or calcium channel blocker toxicity.
It is important to note that the use of hypertonic infusions should be determined by qualified medical professionals, and the specific indications and dosages may vary depending on individual patient needs and medical conditions.